python处理网页中的cookie

发布于 2019-10-21 作者 风铃 13次 浏览 版块 前端

最近想要搭建个小黄鸡的微信应用,但是一路来发现,现在很多的方法都已经不能用了,我在本地试过,也试用过requests获取session的方法也不行,但是这经过这次折腾,倒是对cookie有了更多的了解,以下以python登录人人网的例子来介绍cookie的使用。
cookie的定义可以参考百度百科,http://baike.baidu.com/subview/835/5062332.htm 但是里面说的乱七八糟的,而且好多重复,使用firefox或者fiddler等工具来抓取cookie
在firefox下使用httpFox插件来查到人人网的登录时需要POST的地址是http://www.renren.com/ajaxLogin 
getUrl

而且查看到需要POST的DATA有email和password

python通过cookielib来处理cookie,以下是简单的代码

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>>> import urllib
>>> import urllib2,cookielib
>>> login_page = "http://www.renren.com/ajaxLogin"
>>> cj = cookielib.CookieJar()
>>> opener = urllib2.build_opener(urllib2.HTTPCookieProcessor(cj))
>>> opener.add_handler = [('User-agent','Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 6.0; Windows NT 5.1)')]
>>> data = urllib.urlencode({"email":'username',"password":'password'})
>>> opener.open(login_page,data)
<addinfourl at 53653216 whose fp = <socket._fileobject object at 0x03307B70>>
>>> if cj:
... for index,cookie in enumerate(cj):
... print index,':',cookie
...
0 : <Cookie _de=90D533AE20EB964CA96710977F452897 for .renren.com/>
1 : <Cookie anonymid=hlehtdzg-8359yw for .renren.com/>
2 : <Cookie first_login_flag=1 for .renren.com/>
3 : <Cookie id=224967207 for .renren.com/>
4 : <Cookie loginfrom=null for .renren.com/>
5 : <Cookie p=9beb60859c004bcaf0a32ff2c973473d7 for .renren.com/>
6 : <Cookie societyguester=86b6a6006002ab6316f708521ab50bfc7 for .renren.com/>
7 : <Cookie t=86b6a6006002ab6316f708521ab50bfc7 for .renren.com/>
8 : <Cookie xnsid=fa53da51 for .renren.com/>
9 : <Cookie t=30af9ffe774f4d6f242e92da1ccd6670 for .renren.com/xtalk/>
10 : <Cookie feedType=224967207_hot for .www.renren.com/>
11 : <Cookie JSESSIONID=abc3IP9kEhTExblxcRfeu for www.renren.com/>
>>>

可以和firebug或者httpFox中得到的cookie进行对比,值可能不一致,但key基本上是一致的,你每次登录应该都不一致

getCookie

 

我也尝试过使用fidder模拟发送没有cookie的POST数据,但是没有得到想要的返回值

withoutcookie

而加上cookie信息以后就可以正常的跳转到自己的主页了

withcookie

pg

好了,基本上了解了python中使用cookie来发送登录信息,现在我们来写一个小脚本来登录自己人人网。

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#encoding=utf-8
import urllib2
import urllib
import cookielib
def renrenBrower(url,user,password):
login_page = "http://www.renren.com/ajaxLogin"
try:
cj = cookielib.CookieJar()
opener=urllib2.build_opener(urllib2.HTTPCookieProcessor(cj))
opener.addheaders = [('User-agent','Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 6.0; Windows NT 5.1)')]
data = urllib.urlencode({"email":'user',"password":'password'})
opener.open(login_page,data)
op=opener.open(url)
data= op.read()
return data
except Exception,e:
print str(e)
print renrenBrower("http://www.renren.com/home","用户名","密码")

 

这样就可以将自己首页的信息显示出来了,其实在登录完以后,还可以接着写脚本来获取自己想要的信息,如朋友的新鲜事,

这里重点是使用SGMLParser来解析html代码

以下代码参考http://www.oschina.net/code/snippet_148170_10661 

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from sgmllib import SGMLParser
import sys,urllib2,urllib,cookielib
class spider(SGMLParser):
def __init__(self,email,password):
SGMLParser.__init__(self)
self.h3=False
self.h3_is_ready=False
self.div=False
self.h3_and_div=False
self.a=False
self.depth=0
self.names=""
self.dic={}

self.email=email
self.password=password
self.domain='renren.com'
try:
cookie=cookielib.CookieJar()
cookieProc=urllib2.HTTPCookieProcessor(cookie)
except:
raise
else:
opener=urllib2.build_opener(cookieProc)
urllib2.install_opener(opener)

def login(self):
url='http://www.renren.com/PLogin.do'
postdata={
'email':self.email,
'password':self.password,
'domain':self.domain
}
req=urllib2.Request(
url,
urllib.urlencode(postdata)
)

self.file=urllib2.urlopen(req).read()
#print self.file
def start_h3(self,attrs):
self.h3 = True
def end_h3(self):
self.h3=False
self.h3_is_ready=True

def start_a(self,attrs):
if self.h3 or self.div:
self.a=True
def end_a(self):
self.a=False

def start_div(self,attrs):
if self.h3_is_ready == False:
return
if self.div==True:
self.depth += 1

for k,v in attrs:
if k == 'class' and v == 'content':
self.div=True;
self.h3_and_div=True #h3 and div is connected
def end_div(self):
if self.depth == 0:
self.div=False
self.h3_and_div=False
self.h3_is_ready=False
self.names=""
if self.div == True:
self.depth-=1
def handle_data(self,text):
#record the name
if self.h3 and self.a:
self.names+=text
#record says
if self.h3 and (self.a==False):
if not text:pass
else: self.dic.setdefault(self.names,[]).append(text)
return
if self.h3_and_div:
self.dic.setdefault(self.names,[]).append(text)

def show(self):
type = sys.getfilesystemencoding()
for key in self.dic:
print ( (''.join(key)).replace(' ','')).decode('utf-8').encode(type),
( (''.join(self.dic[key])).replace(' ','')).decode('utf-8').encode(type)

if __name__ =='__main__':
renrenspider=spider('email','password')
renrenspider.login()
renrenspider.feed(renrenspider.file)
renrenspider.show()

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